Climate, terrain, soil, and plant types are the main factors that affect landscape design. Climate is the most important factor to consider when designing a landscape. It is essential to consider the main uses of the garden, such as entertaining, gardening, parties, relaxing, having picnics, and playing. When consulting designers, it is important to consider all the people who will use the garden, including children and pets.
The physical and botanical characteristics of plant material must be taken into account when selecting plants for the landscape. These characteristics include nomenclature, origin, family, natural habitat, growth and form, physical characteristics, propagation and maintenance, and use in landscape design. The physical and chemical properties of available soil are also important factors to consider. The water requirement can be derived from moisture and precipitation data from the natural habitat of plants.
Wind erosion is a serious problem in areas with little rainfall and near rivers, lakes or seas. Windbreaks and protective belts can help reduce soil erosion and evaporation of moisture from the soil. Trees can reduce airborne particles by up to 25%. When designing a landscape on a slope, water and gravity must be taken into account to avoid flooding or damage to materials.
Landscapers should examine the planting site, determine their landscape needs, and obtain pertinent information about possible plant materials before starting a project.